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Diagnostic methods

Parasitological diagnosis
Clinically suspected diagnosis can only be confirmed by identification of larvae in autopsy or biopsy specimens. Larvae are detected only very rarely (but occasionally in ocular larva migrans). Biopsies not recommended as a routine diagnostic approach
Most infections are without symptoms!

Molecular diagnosis

No test developed so far

Antigen detection

No test developed so far

Antibody detection

Antibody detection by ELISA using excretory/secretory antigens from larval cultures is the standard diagnostic test. Detecting IgG4 antibodies leads to better specificity but with a considerable loss in sensitivity. Serological results cannot differentiate past from active infections. In treated patients, one might observe a decline in antibody titres within 6–12 month post-therapy which might indicate successful treatment.


Diagnostic strategies

Diagnostic approaches are limited to clinical findings and serology!

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