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Schistosomiasis, urinary
  • S. haematobium is focally distributed in Africa and the Middle East (prevalence is especially high in West Africa and the Nile Valley)
  • Humans are infected by penetrating cercariae
  • Schoolchildren have the highest worm burden in endemic areas. A partial immunity (“concomitant immunity”) protects adults from reinfection.
  • Building of dams and irrigation system favours habitats for the intermediate host snail