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Diagnostic Strategies
  1. To diagnose an individual case
    In returning travellers with limited exposure, definite diagnosis is difficult to achieve. One might combine clinical findings, skin snips and the demonstration of specific serum antibodies.
  2. To assess a control programme
    Detecting microfilariae in skin snips is not adequate for the assessment of a control programme due to the low sensitivity of this method and the length of the pre-patent period. There have been many attempts to develop immunological methods for early diagnosis. However, they were either unsuccessful or have not been fully validated so far.