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Clinical Findings
  • Skin manifestations include:
    • Pruritus, rash (when microfilariae die)
    • Chronic dermatitis and altered pigmentation
    • Oedema and atrophy of the skin
    • Loss of skin elasticity
    • Lymphadenitis
    • Pigment changes known as “leopard skin” 
  • Nodules (onchocercomas) contain live or calcified adult worms
  • Eye manifestations are due to dying microfilariae and include:
    • Punctate keratitis
    • Sclerosing keratitis
    • Anterior uveitis
    • Chorioretinal lesions
    • Inflammation and atrophy of the optic nerve
    • Blindness


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