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Cysticercosis
Diagnostic Methods
Diagnostic methodsPros and cons
Parasitological diagnosis 
Cysticerci (tapeworm larvae) of T. solium occur in the muscle and in the brain (in humans as intermediate hosts).
Subcutaneous cysticerci may be visible or palpable.
Cysticerci may also be detected by non-invasive methods like CT scan and MRI, or when calcified, by X-ray.
Histology reveals cysticerci in biopsies.
• Neuroimaging methods are too expensive in developing countries
• Limited specificity of imaging methods (difficulties in differentiating neurocysticercosis from brain tumour by CT)
Molecular diagnosis 
No tests developed so far 
Antigen detection 
First attempts to detect antigens in cerebrospinal fluid have been described• Test not yet fully validated
Antibody detection 
Diagnosis of cysticercosis should be supported by a serological test. Serum antibody detection in cysticercosis is done with immunoassays (ELISA and enzyme-linked immunotransfer blots, EITB). No advantage was observed using cerebrospinal fluid.• Variable results for sensitivity and specificity
• Difficulties in distinguishing active from past infections
• Only a few tests have been fully validated
• Convenient screening approach for epidemiological studies