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Urine Examinations

In Medical Parasitology the main aim of a urine examination is to find Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Rarely one might also find microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus.

The specimen should be collect when the chance to find eggs is the highest (between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m.). One should examine as much urine as possible to detect light infections (several specimen from different days would be optimal).

There are two main methods for the detection of S. haematobium eggs:

1. Sedimentation
Let the fresh urine sample (shake before pouring!) to sediment for 1 hour in a conical urine flask. Withdraw the sediment into a centrifuge tube and spin for not more than 2 minutes at 2000 g. Examine the sediment at low magnification for the presence of ova.

2. Filtration
Place a polycarbonate or nylon fibre filter (12-20 μm pore size) in a filter holder. Agitate the urine and fill a syringe (10-20 ml). Attach the filter holder and expel the urine. Remove the filter with forceps on a microscopic slide. Examine the whole filter for eggs after staining with Lugol’s iodine.